3-D Sound References
The following references provide a good set of entry points for the printed literature on spatial audio. Additional useful information can be found from links to spatial audio on the World Wide Web.
- Begault, D. (1994). 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia (Academic Press, Boston, MA, 1994). A clear and comprehensive presentation of 3-D audio principles and current technology.
- Berg, R. E. and D. G. Stork (1982). The Physics of Sound (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ). An inviting exposition of acoustics with a minimum of mathematics.
- Blauert, J. (1983). Spatial Hearing (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA). The standard reference on the psychophysics of three-dimensional hearing.
- Bracewell, R. N. (1986). The Fourier Transform and its Applications, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York). A standard reference for Fourier analysis.
- Brown, C. P. (1996). “Modeling the Elevation Characteristics of the Head-Related Impulse Response,” Technical Report No. 13, NSF Grant No. IRI-9402246, Dept. of Elec. Engr., San Jose State Univ., San Jose, CA. Develops an accurate and efficient DSP model.
- Carlile, Simon (1996). Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications (Chapman and Hall, New York. Contains outstanding chapters surveying the physics and psychophysics of 3-D auditory perception and the synthesis of spatial sound.
- Duda, R. O. (1993). “Modeling head related transfer functions,” in Proc. Twenty-Seventh Annual Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (Asilomar, CA). Briefly surveys the major approaches used to date.
- Genuit, K. (1984). “A model for the description of outer-ear transmission characteristics,” Doctor of Engineeing dissertation (in German), Rheinish-Westphalian Technical University, Aachen, Germany. An ambitious attempt to develop signal-processing models of head-related transfer functions from head- and outer-ear geometry. Some of the concepts are incorporated in the binaural mixing console manufactured by Head Acoustics.
- Han, H. L. (1994). “Measuring a dummy head in search of pinna cues,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 42, Nos. 1/2, pp. 15-37, January. One of several studies of the nature of the elevation cues produced by the pinna.
- Handel, S. (1989). Listening (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA). A recommended introductory textbook on the psychology of hearing; includes non-mathematical chapters on the physics of sound production, propagation and diffraction, plus a lucid chapter on auditory neurophysiology.
- Mills, A. W. (1972). “Auditory localization,” in J. V. Tobias, Ed., Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II, pp. 303-348 (Academic Press, NY). An excellent summary of the mechanisms and psychoacoustic cues for sound localization.
- Morse, P. M. and K. U. Ingard (1968). Theoretical Acoustics (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ). An advanced but very clear textbook on the physics of sound.
- Oppenheim, A. V. and R. W. Schafer (1989). Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ). A standard and widely respected textbook on digital signal processing (DSP).
- Steiglitz, K. (1996). A Digital Signal Processing Primer (Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA). A clear introduction to DSP, particularly suitable for audio applications.
- Wright, M. (1996). “3-D Audio: Above and behind you or moving low left to right,” EDN, pp. 87-88,90,92,94,96,99, June. A trade publication that accurately summarizes current commercialproducts and technical trends.