3D Negative Index Metamaterials

Background

In the past 6 years, interests have grown in the research community on the "discovery" of materials that have been termed Metamaterials (MTM), also known as Double Negative Media (DNM), Left-Handed Media (LHM), Backward Wave Media (BWM), Negative Index Material (NIM) and Negative Refractive Index media (NRI)[1-3]. These metamaterials are new artificial electromagnetic materials that exhibit unique properties that are consistent with simultaneous negative permittivity and negative permeability. Such an unconventional electromagnetic material property provides some unique and exotic application areas in, for example, new design in airborne radar, thin slab of "perfect" lenses where images are no longer subject to the conventional diffraction limits, higher resolution magnetic resonance imaging and miniature antenna. Thus far, the negative refractive index property of metamaterials has been demonstrated at microwave (>10GHz) [4] to IR frequencies (100THz) [5]. With a push to reduce the wavelength, the individual particle of MTM's has to be scaled down appropriately leading to a stringent requirement on material losses, bandwidth and demanding resolution in feature size fabrication [6-9]. New fabrication and device technologies have to be investigated to address some of these issues.

Research Focus

To this end, our group is currently focusing on demonstrating the feasibility of fabricating 3-Dimensional (isotropic) metamaterial that will exhibit negative permeability and negative permittivity using micromachining/microfabrication techniques. This approach will provide a low cost and large scale self-assembly of NIM.

The major thrust will be in functional development of 3D-optical NIM and NIM based novel photonic devices by exploiting:

  1. Nano-imprinting technology
  2. Nanorods void formation
  3. Ultra-smooth metal surfaces
  4. Manufacturable and massively parallel microassembly methods for 3D NIM.

For more information, please visit the following links:

Researchers

  • Logeeswaran VJ
  • Stameroff
  • Marrs

Collaborators

  • Hewlett-Packard Labs
  • Duke U
  • UUIC
  • UC Berkeley

References

  1. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp., vol. 10, pp. 509-514, Jan.-Feb. 1968.
  2. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart & I. Youngs, "Extremely Low Frequency Plasmons in Metallic Mesostructures", Physical Review Letters, vol. 76, No.25, pp. 4773-4776, (1996).
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol.47, pp. 2075-2084, (1999).
  4. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science, vol. 292, pp. 77-79, 6 April 2001.
  5. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, & C.M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz", Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
  6. E. Ozbay,K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, & Mehmet Bayindir, "Transmission And Reflection Properties Of Composite Double Negative Metamaterials In Free Space", IEEE Transactions On Antennas And Propagation, Vol. 51,
    No. 10, (2003).
  7. R. W. Ziolkowski, "Design, Fabrication And Testing Of Double negative metamaterials," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 1516-1529, July 2003.
  8. K. Iyer and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Negative refractive index metamaterials supporting 2D waves," digest, IEEE Internat. Microwave Symp., June 2-7, 2002, Seattle, WA.
  9. A. Caloz, H. Okabe, T. Awai, and T. Itoh, "Transmission line approach of left-handed materials," RSI Digest, IEEE AP-S/URSI Internat. Symp. June 16-21, 2002, San Antonio,TX.
  10. Logeeswaran VJ, Mei-Lin Chan, Y. Bayam, M. Saif Islam David A. Horsley, Wei Wu, Shih-Yuan Wang and R. Stanley Williams "Ultra-smooth metal surfaces generated by pressure induced surface deformation of thin metal films", Applied Physics A, 2006 (in press).
  11. Logeeswaran VJ, Mei-Lin Chan, M.Saif Islam, David A Horsley, Wei Wu, Shih Yuan Wang and R. Stanley Williams; "Surface Deformation of Metal Films Under Controlled Pressure for Generating Ultra-flat Metal Surfaces" MRS Spring Meeting, (B8.22) 2007.
  12. Logeeswaran VJ, M. Saif Islam , M.-L. Chan, D. A. Horsley, W. Wu, S.-Y. Wang and R. S. William, "Realization of 3D Isotropic Negative Index Materials using Massively Parallel and Manufacturable Microfabrication and Micromachining Technology", Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 919 2006, (0919-J02-01).
  13. Logeeswaran VJ, Alexander N. Stameroff and M. Saif Islam, Wei Wu, Alexander M. Bratkovsky, Philip J. Kuekes, Shih-Yuan Wang & R. Stanley Williams "Switching Between Positive and Negative Permeability by Photoconductive Coupling for Modulation of Electromagnetic Radiation", Accepted for publication in Applied Physics A, 2007.
  14. Logeeswaran VJ, M. Saif Islam , Ekaterina Ponizovskaya, Alexander Bratkovsky, Wei Wu, Shih-Yuan Wang, R. Stanley Williams, "Toward the modulation of negative index materials by photoconductive coupling", Proceedings of SPIE, vol 6373, Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems, Editors Mehdi Anwar, Anthony J. DeMaria, Michael S. Shur, , 6373 0H (Oct. 12, 2006).
  15. M. Saif Islam and Logeeswaran VJ, "Microfabrication of self-assembling elements for 3D negative-index materials" SPIE News room, DOI: 10.1117/2.1200612.0515, 2006.
  16. Logeeswaran VJ, M. Saif Islam , M.-L. Chan, D. A. Horsley, W. Wu, & S.-Y. Wang, "Self-assembled microfabrication technology for 3D isotropic negative index material", Proceedings of SPIE -- Vol 6393, Nanophotonics for Communication: Materials, Devices, and Systems III, Martina Gerken, Nibir K. Dhar, Achyut K. Dutta, M. Saif Islam , Editors, 639305.
  17. Logeeswaran VJ, M. Saif Islam , M.-L. Chan, D. A. Horsley, W. Wu, S.-Y. Wang and R. S. William, "Realization of 3D Isotropic Negative Index Materials using Massively Parallel and Manufacturable Microfabrication and Micromachining Technology", Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 919 2006, (0919-J02-01).